Evolution of Glycan Diversity


Glycans are saccharides that can be involved to a widespread variation of biological molecules through an enzymatic course called glycosylation to augment their purpose. Of the four essential building blocks of life, proteins, carbohydrates (glycans), lipids and nucleic acids, glycans have expected the smallest consideration from scientists. Glycans are found in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes, and their various functions contribute to physical and physical integrity, extracellular matrix formation, signal transduction, protein compact and data interchange amongst cells (and pathogens). Glycans are the chief molecule on the cell surface and attend as the first point of connection between a cell and other cells, the extracellular matrix and pathogens. The amplified evolutionary pressure of being at the front lines of cellular collaboration and conflict most likely led to the diversification of glycans. Glyco-epitope diversity enriches the role of glycans in the group of debilitating and life-shortening disorders known as congenital muscular dystrophy, or CMD. Together membrane proteins and the ECM are highly glycosylated, and O-glycans are important for proper ECM function and communication between cells and the ECM. Numerous Glycoepitomics forms of CMD are well-known to result after dysfunctional O-glycosylation of membrane and ECM proteins; however, one-third of CMDs arise from an unknown genetic etiology.




  • O-Glycans


  • Glycosphingolipids


  • N-Glycans


  • Shared Outer Chains of Glycans


  • Sialic Acids


  • Glycosaminoglycans


  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors


  • Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Glycans


  • O-Glycans
  • Glycosphingolipids
  • N-Glycans
  • Shared Outer Chains of Glycans
  • Sialic Acids
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors
  • Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Glycans

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